Ryan Grauer is an associate professor of international affairs in the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh. His research examines the sources and use of military power in the international arena. He is the author of Commanding Military Power (Cambridge University Press, 2016). At present, he is working on projects examining the creation, organization, and operation of multinational coalitions in battle, the causes and consequences of soldier surrender, and the scope and intensity of uses of force by democracies. He received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania and his BA from the University of Chicago. He has previously been an academic visitor in Nuffield College at the University of Oxford.